This page enables you to access crystallographic educational resources by type. If you would prefer to access the resources by Topic click here.

This resource originated from the DECOR (Database of Educational Crystallographic Online Resources) project set up by Mike Zdilla at Temple University. Many educators and teachers worldwide have committed many hours of time to the development of these resources and so it is only fair that they receive the credit they deserve. There is only one condition to using the materials on this site and that is to provide appropriate citations and to credit the authors of the material when you use it.  If you agree to these terms, you may access the material using the links below.The material has been donated by expert crystallographers and educators to help others teach the wonders of crystallography. Although it is hosted by the CCDC to help provide our community with resources to teach crystallography it has not been peer reviewed or checked and should be used at your own risk and discretion.

If you have educational material you would like us to help you share with the community we would love to hear from you, you can email us on hello@ccdc.cam.ac.uk. 
DECOR logoThese resources were originally developed by Mike Zdilla at Temple University under the DECOR initiative

Click on the boxes below to navigate to the section of interest.

Slides/Visual Aids

Slides from George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

By downloading any of the files below you are agreeing to cite George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen when you use any of these resources.

1. Introduction and Symmetry -  Introduction to crystallography and symmetry - Last updated: 26/10/2010
2. Symmetry -  Symmetry - Last updated: 23/09/2016
3. Lattices, Symmetry, Space Groups - Crystal lattices, Unit Cell, Bravais Lattice, symmetry, space groups - Last updated: 08/11/2010
4. Space Groups, Crystal Growth - Space groups, crystal growth, diffraction, instrumentation, X-rays 
5. Diffraction, Reciprocal Space, Laue Group - Diffraction, reciprocal lattice, Bragg Equation, Laue Group, Symmetry, resolution - Last updated: 22/11/2010
6. Reciprocal Space, Space Group, Systematic Absences, Symmetry - Reciprocal Lattice, Space Group selection, systematic absences, centrosymmetry - Last updated: 29/11/2010
7. Space Group, Structure Factor, Phase - Space Group, Structure Factors, Phases - Last updated: 02/12/2010
8. Phase, Direct Methods, Dual Space - The Phase Problem, The Sayre Equation, Direct Methods, Dual Space - Last updated:14/12/2010
9. Heavy Atom Method - Patterson Methods - Last updated:11/01/2011
10. Refinement, Thermal Ellipsoids, Disorder, Fourier Difference Refinement, ADP, Thermal Ellipsoids, Disorder, Libration, Fourier Difference Maps, Hydrogen atoms - Last updated:17/01/2011
11. Structure Factors, Constraints and Restraints, neutron diffraction - Structure Factors, Constraints and Restraints, ADP, Disorder, neutron diffraction - Last updated:26/01/2011
12. Powder Diffraction Last updated:19/02/2011
13. Twinning, Anomalous dispersion, XAS, CCD, modulated structures - Twinning, Anomalous Dispersion, Absolute configuration, XAS, CCD, modulated structures - Last updated:07/02/2011

Slides from Phillip Fanwick

Unless otherwise stated by downloading any of the files below you are agreeing to cite Phillip Fanwick 

1. Introduction, ADP's, crystal Quality - Introduction, ORTEPS and ADP's, Crystal Quality, CIFs, Disorder - Last updated: 05/11/2009
2. Equipment, coordinates - Equipments, Non-Cartesian Coordinates
3. Matrices, coordinates, unit cell. - Matrices, coordinates, the unit cell, Crystal Systems, Symmetry, Bravais Lattices
4. History of X-rays -  X-rays, History of X-rays
5. X-rays, diffraction, interference - Interference, diffraction
6. Diffraction, History of Diffraction, Reciprocal Space  - Diffraction, history of diffraction, reciprocal space 
7. Reciprocal Space, Bragg's Law, Bragg planes, Ewald sphere - Reciprocal Space, bragg's law, bragg planes, miller Indices, ewald sphere - Last updated: 23/01/2008
8. Scattering, Fourier Theory, ADP, Absorption - Scattering, scattering factors, fourier theory, ADP's, absorption, thermal ellipsoids, equipment (Cold stream) 
9. Symmetry - symmetry.  If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Phillip Fanwick and George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
10. Space Groups - Symmetry, space groups - If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Phillip Fanwick and George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
11. Bravais Lattices, Centering, symmetry - Bravais Lattices, centering, symmetry, space groups - If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Phillip Fanwick and George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
12. Space Groups, Symmetry - Symmetry, space groups
13, Equipment, Precession Camera, symmetry, space groups, redundant data, systematic absence. - Equipment, precession camera, symmetry, space groups, redundant data, systematic absences 
14. Systematic absences, XPREP, Crystal growth and selection, - Systematic absences, XPREP, crystal growth, selecting crystals, equipment (microscope, goniometer, cameras), extinction (visible light) 
15. Selecting crystals, goniometers, detectors. - Selecting crystals, equipment (microscope, goniometers, detectors) 
16. Data Collection, Indexing - Data collection, indexing
17. Integration, Data reduction, scaling, twins, absorption correction - Integration, data reduction, scaling, twins, absorption correction - Last updated: 19/02/2010
18. XPREP, Fourier Theory, Structure solution, phase. - XPREP, Fourier theory, structure solution, The Phase problem. - Last updated: 03/08/2012. Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Phillip Fanwick and George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
19. Structure solution, phase, charge flipping, Direct Methods, Fourier Theory - Structure solution, The Phase Problem, charge flipping, direct methods, Fourier Theory, normalized structure factors, Sayre Equation - Last updated: 03/08/2012. Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Phillip Fanwick and George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
20. SIR, Patterson methods, Difference Fourier map. - SIR, Patterson, difference Fourier map 
21. Structure Solution failure, refinement, correlation, occupancy - Structure solution failure, refinement,  weighting, correlation, occupancy. Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Phillip Fanwick and George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
22. Hydrogen Atoms, disorder, restraints, modulated structure, occupancy, SQUEEZE - Hydrogen atoms, disorder, restraints, commensurate modulated structure, occupancy, SQUEEZE, site occupancy disorder 
23. Centric/noncentric space groups, anomalous scattering. - Centric/noncentric space groups, anomalous scattering, absolute configuration, Bijvoet differences, Flack factor, Hooft approach 
24. Cif - CIF - Last updated: 12/04/2010
25. Twinning - Twinning 

Slides from Frank Schaper, Université de Montréal

By downloading any of the files below you are agreeing to cite Frank Schaper, Université de Montréal.

1. Introduction to crystals and the diffraction experiment - Introduction to Crystallography: Crystals, Bravais lattice, diffraction, Bragg equation, structure factors, reciprocal space  
2. Refinement, constraints, restraints, hydrogen atoms - Refinement, constraints, restraints, hydrogen atom treatment
3. CIF, validation, signs of problems - CIF, validation, signs of problems
4. Space group determination - Space Group determination
5. Structure solution: Patterson, direct methods, charge flipping, dual space, intrinsic phasing - Structure solution - Patterson methods, direct methods, charge flipping, dual space refinement, intrinsic phasing
6a. Disorder - Disorder 
6b. SQUEEZE - SQUEEZE 
7. Anomalous dispersion, extinction, systematic absence violation, other problems - Anomalous dispersion, extinction, systematic absences violations, other problems
8. Twinning - Twinning 
9. Data reduction: integration, scaling, absorption correction - Data Reduction 

Slides from Mike Zdilla, Temple University

By downloading any of the files below you are agreeing to cite Michael Zdilla, Temple University.

1. The Unit Cell: Bragg planes, The Bragg equation - Last updated: 08/01/2016
2. X-rays, Scattering, Bragg Equation, Bragg Planes, Interference, Diffraction: X-rays, scattering, Laue Equations, Bragg equations, bragg planes, diffraction, interference, miller indices - Last updated: 08/01/2016
3. Ewald Sphere, Reciprocal Space, Detectors : Ewald Sphere, Reciprocal Space, Detectors - Last updated: 08/01/2016
4. Scattering Factors, phases, vector addition: Scattering factors, phases, vector addition - Last updated: 08/01/2016
5. Symmetry, Space Groups, Systematic absences: Symmetry, space groups, systematic absences - Last updated: 08/01/2016
6. Fourier Theory, patterson methods: Fourier theory, patterson methods - Last updated: 08/01/2016
7. Disorder, modulated structures, quasicrystals, anomalous scattering, absolute structure: Disorder, modulated structures, quasicrystals, anomalous scattering, absolute structure - Last updated: 08/01/2016
8. Twinning: Twinning - Last updated: 08/01/2016
9. Optical Transform slides: Laser pointer diffraction visual aids - Last updated: 04/08/2012

Other animations and visual aids

By downloading any of the files below you are agreeing to cite

1. Symmetry Animations (Jancik) : Last updated - 14/01/2016
2. Kappa geometry animation (WillowW, Kappa goniometer faster smaller, CC BY 3.0): Last updated - 28/01/2008

Practice Problems

DECOR logo These practice examples have been created by George Sheldrick, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.
DECOR logo These practice examples have been created by Mike Zdilla, Temple University

Laboratories

  • Crystal Growth (by Mike Zdilla)
    • Topics covered: Crystal growth by layer and vapor diffusion
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Michael Zdilla, Temple University.

Online Courses

  • X-ray course from Patrick Carroll, University of Pennsylvania
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Patrick Carroll, University of Pennsylvania.
    • Topics covered: Introduction, Symmetry, Data Collection, The Structure Factor, The Phase Problem, Structure Solution by Heavy Atom Methods, Structure Solution by Direct Methods, Structure Refinement
  • X-ray course from Gervais Chapuis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Gervais Chapuis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
    • Topics covered: Foreward, Introduction, Data Collection, Symmetry of Crystals, Structure of Crystals, Diffraction Principles, Diffraction Methods, Resolution of Structures

  • X-ray course from Joseph Reibenspies, Texas A&M
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Joseph Reibenspies.
    • Topics covered: 
      • Single CrystalSpecimen generation and selection, Diffraction and Instrumentation, Data Reduction and Correction, Laue symmetry and space group selection Structure Solution, Model building and Refinement, Common Problems and fixes, Validation and Publication
      • Powder: The solid sample, The Scattered X-ray, Diffraction and Sample Prep, X-ray Diffraction Pattern, Signal Processing, Analysis, WPPD and Rietveld Methods Results
  • Symmetry Resource from Dean Johnston, Otterbein University
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Dean Johnston, Otterbein University
    • Topics Covered: Symmetry
  • Crystallography website from CSIC's Department of Crystallography and Structural Biology (from Prof. Martin Martinez-Ripoll)
    • The content of this website is available in English and in Spanish (at this link)
    • CitationIf you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite the resource following the instructions within the website homepage.
    • Topics Covered: Introduction, The structure of crystals, X-rays, The symmetry of crystals, Direct & reciprocal lattices, Scattering and diffraction, Experimental diffraction, Structural resolution, The structural model, Crystallographic Computing, Biographical outlines, Crystallographic Associations, Crystallography in Spain

Educational Software

  • 3D reciprocal lattice viewer (Barbour)
    • Software for viewing reciprocal lattices. Requires an hkl file.

    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting or publication, you must agree to cite Len Barbour, University of Stellenbosch.

Video Courses

  • The Fascination of Crystals and Symmetry video course (YouTube) by Frank Hoffmann and Michael Sartor (University of Hamburg)
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Frank Hoffmann and Michael Sartor (University of Hamburg).
    • Additional material is available at https://crystalsymmetry.wordpress.com/yt/
    • Topics Covered: Introduction to Crystals and Crystal Systems, Crystal Systems, Fractional Coordinates, and Morphology of Crystals, The World of Symmetry, Crystal classes and Plane groups, Glide planes, Screw axes and Space groups, Quasicrystals and Real Crystal Structures (in 3D), Metal-Organic Frameworks and Networks, Practising Topology Determination, Tilings

Recently Added Resources

  • The Fascination of Crystals and Symmetry video course (YouTube) by Frank Hoffmann and Michael Sartor (University of Hamburg)
    • Citation: If you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite Frank Hoffmann and Michael Sartor (University of Hamburg).
    • Additional material is available at https://crystalsymmetry.wordpress.com/yt/
    • Topics Covered: Introduction to Crystals and Crystal Systems, Crystal Systems, Fractional Coordinates, and Morphology of Crystals, The World of Symmetry, Crystal classes and Plane groups, Glide planes, Screw axes and Space groups, Quasicrystals and Real Crystal Structures (in 3D), Metal-Organic Frameworks and Networks, Practising Topology Determination, Tilings
  • Crystallography website from CSIC's Department of Crystallography and Structural Biology (from Prof. Martin Martinez-Ripoll) 
    • The content of this website is available in English and in Spanish (at this link)
    • CitationIf you intend to use this resource in a classroom setting, you must agree to cite the resource following the instructions within the website homepage.
    • Topics Covered: Introduction, The structure of crystals, X-rays, The symmetry of crystals, Direct & reciprocal lattices, Scattering and diffraction, Experimental diffraction, Structural resolution, The structural model, Crystallographic Computing, Biographical outlines, Crystallographic Associations, Crystallography in Spain

About these resources

The idea to collate these materials originated from the DECOR project which was originally created by Zdilla Lab and hosted by Temple UniversityDepartment of Chemistry, 420 Beury Hall, 1901 N. 13th St. Philadelphia, PA 19122 and was  funded in part by the National Science Foundation under award 1254545.NSF-logoMike Zdilla kindly donated this resource to the CCDC to host in 2020.

The CCDC acts solely in providing DECOR for sharing content, it does not control any aspect of the content and has no control over and is not responsible for the quality, description, fitness for purpose, safety or legality or the truth or accuracy of the content provided which is solely the responsibility of the originator. It is the responsibility of the content producer to adhere to copyright laws and care should be taken when re-using text and images and appropriate credit and attribution should be provided. If you identify copyright material in these resources please contact us to ask for its removal.