Lead was one of the first metals to be discovered by humans. It was used in great amounts in the Roman Empire. The Ancient Romans made cookware, water pipes, wine jugs and coins. Romans boiled grapes, in Lead pots or Lead lined copper kettles, to make a variety of syrups. These syrups were used to sweeten and preserve wine and fruits. Each sip of wine and each bite of preserved fruit took the Ancient Romans closer to the Empire's fall. Over half of the Lead produced is used in lead-acid car batteries. Most of the Lead produced nowadays comes from recycled batteries. In the 18th century, both men and women used powdered Lead to attain a fashionable ghostly complexion, even after the known toxicity of the substance. This lead to; eye inflammations, tooth rotting, baldness, and ultimately, death. Long term use caused the skin to blacken, creating a loop where wearers applied more and more each time until their demise. It has been reported that Queen Elizabeth I had a full inch of Lead makeup on her face when she died.
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