Californium, named after the University of California, Berkeley, and the state of California is the heaviest element to be produced in weighable amounts. With a +3 dominant oxidation state (OS), it becomes only water soluble at this OS. Efforts to reduce or oxidize the +3 ion in solution has seen failure. The actinide element produced by bombarding curium with alpha particles has its electronic properties affected by the movement of its inner electrons at significant factions of the speed of light. The most stable laboratory-synthesized isotope Cf-252 has a half-life of approximately 800 years and is a very strong neutron emitter which means it possesses atypical property of giving off neutrons when it breaks apart and it is interesting because isotopes that behave in this way are very unusual. Neutrons from Californium (Cf-252) are utilized to serve the treatment of brain and cervical cancers in instances where radiation therapy proves futile.
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