Note: GOLD 5.4 and later uses CSD software suite based licensing, and does not require a license server to be run.
For GOLD 5.3 and earlier, the simple answer is no.
There are two types of GOLD licence: "counted" and "uncounted". Counted licences by definition require the use of a licence server, which counts how many licences are in use at any one time. On the other hand, uncounted licences do not require the use of a licence server since they do not restrict how many licences can be used at once, only which platforms the licences can be used on, and how long for (i.e. the expiry date).
Standard GOLD evaluation licences are "uncounted" and therefore do not require the use of a licence server. All permanent GOLD licences are counted and do require the use of a licence server.