Thulium was discovered in 1879 by Swedish scientist Per Teodor Cleve, who also discovered holmium. In nature it is not found in pure form, so it needs to be purified. The mineral it most commonly appears in is gadolinite that we know of today. It does have several mines across many countries, however, it is most common in China. Thulium is only beaten by promethium in being the least abundant lanthanide. Many applications of thulium are often used in lasers. It is a material used in an active laser, which provides very high efficiency. Thulium has very low coagulation depth in both air and water, making it a better fit for surgeries that need to utilize lasers. Thulium is also utilized in X-ray devices. Thulium can also be utilized in superconductors, microwaves, arc lightning, and is also used to prevent counterfeiting in some cases. When it comes to the dangers of thulium, thulium that is insoluble is actually completely nontoxic.
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